24 Jan 2014

Lola

How do writers persuade us?

command verbs: join us, don't do it, stop!, go jogging, jog!

PQC The writer uses the command verb 'join' which almost gives people no choice but to join in. The word 'join' suggests togetherness, which is positive and would make people want to belong. (A)

PQC Emotive language: the writer uses the emotive word 'monstrous' to put a picture of a monster in the reader's head, which suggests something overwhelming and threatening.

PQC They also use emotive langauge in the picture of 'bins engulfing our streets' which suggests a tidal wave of bins (which are disgusting) swamping us.

PQC The writer uses 'our', which is inclusive, to make the reader feel it's a problem that affects all of us, and the newspaper is sharing in it too, like it's a friend chatting to us, which is more likely to persuade us to 'join' them. (A)


The writer uses the command verb 'join' which almost gives people no choice but to join in. The word 'join' suggests togetherness, which is positive and would make people want to belong. (A) Emotive language: the writer uses the emotive word 'monstrous' to put a picture of a monster in the reader's head, which suggests something overwhelming and threatening. They also use emotive langauge in the picture of 'bins engulfing our streets' which suggests a tidal wave of bins (which are disgusting) swamping us. They make the reader fearful so they feel like they've got to act. The writer uses 'our', which is inclusive, to make the reader feel it's a problem that affects all of us, and the newspaper is sharing in it too, like it's a friend chatting to us, which is more likely to persuade us to 'join' them. (A)

The writer quotes expert opinions in quotation marks, to persuade us that there are real dangers that need to be solved. This is the Pensioners Action Association with direct quotes not just of one individual but all their 'members'. We might feel 'elderly people' are more helpless, and the list of specific problems like height, number of bins and 'steps' suggests they are struggling. Other experts like 'WRAP' say it's 'not efficient', making us feel outraged because it's so awkward and for no good reason.

The writer uses negative language against bins like 'fury', 'unwanted' and the horrible image of a 'bin explosion' to persuade us they're bad and positive images to show us how joyful life will be once we've joined their campaign to get rid of them. They use phrases like 'free to enjoy', where 'free' suggests freedom, openness and 'enjoy' is pleasure, both of which will appeal to our desires. Then they contrast this with the harsh sounds and alliteration in 'bumping into a bin', where the 'b' is brutal and will make us feel as if these bins could harm us. They also suggest this is more 'green', and being green is hugely positive and good for everyone on the planet not just our selfish needs so will make us feel we've got a duty to stop bins. They also use the argument money saved can 'help people' which also appeals to our sense of helping others. All the emotive language, commands, and positive visions of helping people are desgined to make us want to join this campaign, which is highlighted in the subtitle of the article.


'our', 'we', 'us': inclusive
'you', 'your' > direct address, direct appeal to the reader



January 2012
OCR Past Paper
OCR Reading Booklet
OCR Mark Scheme

LINK TO PAST PAPER ANSWERS FOR THE WRITING SECTION
HOMEWORK: Answer one of the writing questions
Help: write about a time when you or one of your friends needed help
The Best and Worst

How does Bill Bryson make the account entertaining.


First he sets up a calm gentle mood with soft words like ‘perfect’, ‘warm’ and ‘snooze’ and instantly contrasts this with a scarily vague ‘a sound’ that made his eyes ‘fly open’. This dramatic mood shift instantly creates tension. He then makes us wait to find out what caused the scary noise, and uses comedy to compare ‘thunderstorms’ with his friend’s snoring. He adds to the tension saying it was ‘unusual’ and worse than this. The next sentence is very long adding a list of scary but slightly vague and sinister details of something ‘weighty’, and the onomatopoeia of ‘click of breaking branches’ suggests damage, and ‘snuffling’ almost sounds cute, but we’re a bit worried because of how large it is and its mood is ‘irritable’: it might get really angry.


He gives us an image of him sitting ‘bolt upright’ when he is startled by this noise, this shows us how scared he is which affects the readers and makes us feel concerned for him. He then gives us the image of his ‘brain’, ‘dashing around fantically, like ants’ which gives us a comical image which is a funny contrast: a man on full alert with a brain that’s gone to bits like insects. He then refers back to the mood he set before and says the calming words ‘tranquil’, ‘repose’, so he’s alternating and building tension by making us wait. In contrast to his panic, his friend’s ‘weary’ reaction and lack of concern - which is almost angry - is funny. Not only does Katz not care or want to help with this emergency, but he says ‘how the hell should I know?’ He then creates even more of a tention by telling us how he ‘cautiously’ went out to get his bag, which is scary because he is going out and getting closer to the danger. He tells us how ‘wimpy’ his knife is and it should only really be used for ‘buttering pancakes’. This contrast between sweet pancakes and a bear is funny as well. This creates more fear for the audience and entains us because we want to know what he will end up doing the defend himself. Furthermore, after scaring us by going out the get his bag, he then goes out of the tent to find out what this danger is. He gives us an image of ‘only two shining eyes’ which is what you associate with a cartoon when they are confronted with danger. He then tells us ‘it went silent’ which creates a lot of tension to keep the audience focused. Then he repeats ‘whatever it was’:


- he’s already said it’s a bear, so it’s as if he can’t really admit to himself because he’s so scared. We all know, but don’t want to know, which is a funny effect.
- he says this twice almost exactly the same like he’s going round in circles or is frozen in time because he’s so scared
- he repeats himself like he’s stuttering, or confused


-this is funny/scary because
-this makes us think of
-this suggests
-it’s as if


-next -after this - he develops this idea when - he adds to this - he contrasts this - the mood suddenly shifts when  -the mood builds when



What do you understand, find out:

  • The newspaper article explains/informs/argues on...
  • Overall, we understand that....
  • The article then introduces us to...
  • Firstly, I have learn that...
  • Additionally..
  • Furthermore...
  • Moreover...
  • This implies...
  • Another key point...

THE METHOD
1. read the first question so you know exactly what information you are looking for when you read the article. Highlight key words in the question. Circle or highlight relevant information. If it is 12 marks, pull out 12 points. You need to put this in your own words as far as is sensible. YOU ARE NOT MEANT TO QUOTE.
2. focus on language closely, quote briefly (1-2 words). Explain meanings of words and how they've been chosen to create an effect on the reader.
Be specific. This suggests...
3. Figure out what is the effect the writer is trying to create on the reader (you) and then how he does it.



Plosive /b/ /p/ /t/ /d/ sounds create an abrupt, sharp, sometimes shocking effect. Look for plosives blended with sibilants or liquids - as a short, sharp shock after the softer mood OR, where both are interlaced (sib/plo/sib/plo/sib/plo) think about which feels stronger - is it a juddering effect, stuttering (be creative with your interpretation: what does it make you think of?)

1. Become familiar with the plot. Watch the Leonardo di Caprio Romeo and Juliet. Watch it with subtitles on. You may like to watch Shakespeare in Love.
2. Make me a doodle timeline of what happens in the play. Red is for violence. Blue is for love. Purple is for violent love.
3. Listen to the podcast about the start of Romeo and Juliet.
4. Essay on conflict in Romeo and Juliet.

HOMEWORK:
How does Shakespeare present Tybalt? Act 1 Scene 5
Comment on language and theme and contrasts/links to other characters.



How is the character of Tybalt presented as impulsive?


Shakespeare creates the theme of damnation in Tybalt’s language: ‘sin’ and ‘hell’. Tybalt’s language is also all about ‘honour’, and ‘solemnity’, which would seem to be opposites. The contrast is no accident though: Shakespeare is showing that Tybalt’s obsession with ‘honour’ will lead to damnation.


Shakespeare uses a theme of ‘sin’ and ‘hell’ in Tybalt’s language. This contrasts with Romeo who often talks of ‘saints’, ‘pilgrims’ and ‘heaven’. Tybalt is linked to hell and darkness.




At the start of the play, we immediately see impulsive violent acts. Servants are starting a street brawl with rude gestures and are told to halt by the noble character Benvolio, who tells them they’re ‘fools’ and ‘know not’ what they’re doing (1.1.55-56). When Tybalt, another noble, enters, we’re shocked that far from keeping peace, he wants to increase the violence. Tybalt repeats Benvolio’s word ‘peace’ to mock him. Then he twists it into hate, which shows his nature as a violent fire-starter. The word ‘hate’ is repeated twice, in short, abrupt phrases, where he lists a huge number of things that he hates which increases the sense of his aggressive nature. Ironically, he says he hates ‘hell’, which might make us think he’s a good Christian, but he says it at the same time as saying he hates Benvolio, who has done nothing but try to stop a fight. Both are nobles, but Tybalt is much more linked to the rough, violent commoners. When Benvolio tries to make peace, he calls him a ‘coward’, a bitter insult, and so turns his peacefulness into a reason to fight him. This shows how twisted, and illogical he is. With Tybalt, fighting is honourable. But Shakespeare links him to the rough, not so honourable characters, to show the irony of it (the craziness of it).