In a play, it’s all about the way characters present themselves - what they say and what they do, how others see them, and hidden truths that are slowly revealed.
- Always comment on how characters change, and their moods.
- Then think how is the author using this to bring out the themes? Focus on: mood, who’s lying, being lied to, or ignorant of important truths? How does this build the themes?
Dramatic Irony - audience knows something one or more characters on stage doesn’t. This creates tension.
Characters Lie - body language shown in [stage directions] doesn’t match what they say. They repeat themselves, or speak in fragments (i.e. incomplete sentences), sounding less confident.
Character Shock - their view changes or they back down - shown in body language in [stage directions]
Euphemisms - a polite way of avoiding a shocking truth (I’m going to the loo - NOT ‘for a poo’). The Birlings don’t like directly speaking about the dirty business with the girl.
Command Verbs - show bossiness, or control (or someone who’s out of control trying to get it back).
Short, sharp statements - show control. Goole makes the other characters uncomfortable through long, uncomfortable silences. Birling tries to dominate the conversation.
Fragments (Incomplete Sentences) - show that someone’s losing confidence, that their thought is breaking up. This may mirror their psychological state.
Semantic Fields: this shows you a lot about the character and their mood.